All of those instances were summed up by Bill Moyers the other day, in this editorial proclaiming a return to the Gilded Age:
I thought this was an interesting detail from the Gilded Age, and Wikipedia:
Following Darwin’s idea of natural selection, English philosopher Herbert Spencer proposed the idea of social Darwinism. This new concept justified the stratification of the wealthy and poor and coined the term “survival of the fittest”. Joining Spencer was Yale University professor William Graham Sumner whose book What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1884) argued that assistance to the poor actually weakens their ability to survive in society.